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データベースサーバ構築(MySQL)  (最終更新日:2011/08/02)

データベースサーバは、サーバ上に保有しているデータベースをクライアントから検索や更新の要求を受けたときに処理を行い結果を返すサーバです。

ここでは、オープンソース・データベースである、MySQLを使用します。

MySQLインストール

[root@sv ~]# yum install mysql-server ← mysql-serverインストール

MySQL設定

[root@sv ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf ← MySQL設定ファイル編集
[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
user=mysql
# Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks
symbolic-links=0
character-set-server = utf8 ← 追加(MySQLサーバーの文字コードをUTF-8にする)

MySQL起動

[root@sv ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start ← MySQL起動
MySQL データベースを初期化中:  Installing MySQL system tables...
OK
Filling help tables...
OK

To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system

PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:

/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h sv.deveos.test password 'new-password'

Alternatively you can run:
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

which will also give you the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default.  This is
strongly recommended for production servers.

See the manual for more instructions.

You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd /usr ; /usr/bin/mysqld_safe &

You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl
cd /usr/mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl

Please report any problems with the /usr/bin/mysqlbug script!

                                                           [  OK  ]
mysqld を起動中:                                           [  OK  ]

[root@sv ~]# chkconfig mysqld on ← MySQLサーバ自動起動設定

[root@sv ~]# chkconfig --list mysqld ← MySQLサーバ自動起動設定確認
mysqld          0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

MySQLデータベース初期設定

[root@sv ~]# mysql_secure_installation ← MySQL初期設定




NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!


In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):  ← Enterキー押下
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n]  ← Enterキー押下(MySQLのrootパスワード設定)
New password:  ← MySQLのrootを入力(非表示)
Re-enter new password:  ← MySQLのrootを入力確認(非表示)
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]  ← Enterキー押下(匿名ユーザーの削除)
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]  ← Enterキー押下(リモートからrootログインを禁止)
 ... Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]  ← Enterキー押下(testデータベースの削除)
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]  ← Enterキー押下(設定反映)
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...



All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!


MySQL動作確認

[root@sv ~]# mysql -u root -p ← MySQLへrootでログイン
Enter password:  ← MySQLのrootパスワード入力(非表示)
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 10
Server version: 5.1.52 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL v2 license

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> grant all privileges on test.* to user_m@localhost identified by 'パスワード'; ← testデータベースへ全てのアクセス権限を持った、新規ユーザuser_mを登録
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select user from mysql.user where user='user_m'; ← 登録したユーザの確認
+--------+
| user   |
+--------+
| user_m |
+--------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit ← ログアウト
Bye

[root@sv ~]# mysql -u user_m -pパスワード ← user_mでMySQLサーバーへログイン
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 12
Server version: 5.1.52 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL v2 license

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> create database test; ← testデータベース作成
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show databases; ← データベース確認
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> use test ← testデータベースへ接続
Database changed

mysql> create table test(num int, name varchar(50)); ← testテーブル作成
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> show tables; ← テーブル作成確認
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| test           |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into test values(1,'ポチ'); ← testテーブルへデータ登録

mysql> select * from test; ← データ登録確認
+------+--------+
| num  | name   |
+------+--------+
|    1 | ポチ |
+------+--------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> update test set name='チビ'; ← testテーブル内データ更新
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from test; ← データ登録確認
+------+--------+
| num  | name   |
+------+--------+
|    1 | チビ |
+------+--------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> delete from test where num=1; ← testテーブル内データ削除
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from test; ← データ削除確認
Empty set (0.00 sec)

mysql> drop table test; ← testテーブル削除
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show tables; ← テーブル削除確認
Empty set (0.00 sec)

mysql> drop database test; ← testデータベース削除
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show databases; ← データベース削除確認
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit ← ログアウト
Bye

[root@sv ~]# mysql -u root -p ← MySQLへrootでログイン
Enter password:  ← MySQLのrootパスワード入力(非表示)
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 13
Server version: 5.1.52 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL v2 license

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> revoke all privileges on *.* from user_m@localhost; ← user_mから全てのアクセス権限を削除
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> delete from mysql.user where user='user_m' and host='localhost'; ← user_mの削除
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select user from mysql.user where user='user_m'; ← user_mの削除確認

mysql> flush privileges; ← MySQLサーバへ設定反映
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit ← ログアウト
Bye